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MuscleOriginInsertionNerveAction
Back muscles - Spinohumeral muscles - 1st layer
trapeziusprotuberentia occipitalis externa linea nuchae superior (until linea nuchae suprema), processus spinosus C1 - Th12clavicle (outer end), acromion, the spina scapulaen. accessorius + (C3 - C4)Head and neck: dorsal flexion of the cervical spine and head, lateroflexion (unilateral), auxiliary rotation (the same side). Shoulder: retraction (caudal, cranial bundles), elevation (cranial bundles), depression (caudal bundles), auxiliary protraction with rotation of the lower angle outer (caudal, cranial bundles)
latissimus dorsia) fascia thoracolumbalis - crista iliaca (dorsal part) , os sacrum (dorsal part), processus spinosus (L1-L5) b) 10th - 12th ribs c) processus spinosus Th12 - Th7, surface fascia of m. teres majorcrista tuberculi minoris humerin. thoracodorsalisTorso: auxiliary rotation (opposite side). Shoulder joint: dorsal flexion, adduction, internal rotation. Breathing: inspiration.
Back muscles - Spinohumeral muscles - 2nd layer
rhomboideus majorprocessus spinosus Th1-Th4margo medialis scapulaen. dorsalis scapulaeScapula: Retraction (adduction of the spine), auxiliary elevation
rhomboideus minorprocessus spinosus C6-C7margo medialis scapulaen. dorsalis scapulaeScapula: Retraction (adduction of the spine), auxiliary elevation
levator scapulaetubercula dorsalia processus transversi C1-C4angulus inferior scapulae, margo medialis scapulae, spina scapulae (top)n. dorsalis scapulaeNeck: auxiliary lateroflexion (at a fixed the scapula). Scapula: elevation.
Back muscles - spinocostal muscles - 3rd layer
serratus posterior superiorprocessus spinosus C7-Th22nd - 5th ribnn. intercostales I.-IV.Breathing: inspiration (auxiliary)
serratus posterior inferiorprocessus spinosus Th11-L28th - 12 ribnn. intercostales VIII.-XII.Breathing: expiration (auxiliary)
Back muscles - the deep back muscles - the system spinotransversa
spleniusprocessus spinosus more caudal vertebrae (reaching to os occipitale)processus transversus more cranial vertebraerr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck: head and dorsal flexion of the cervical spine, lateroflexion (unilaterally), rotation (of the same side). Torso: dorsal flexion (both sides), lateroflexion (on the inclination), auxiliary rotation (the same side).
longissimusprocessus spinosus more caudal vertebrae (from the sacrum to the processus mastoideus)processus transversus more cranial vertebraerr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck: head and dorsal flexion of the cervical spine, lateroflexion (unilaterally), rotation (of the same side). Torso: dorsal flexion (both sides), lateroflexion (on the inclination), auxiliary rotation (the same side).
ilicostalisprocessus spinosus more caudal vertebrae ((from os sacrum and ilium to the ribs)processus transversus more cranial vertebraerr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck: head and dorsal flexion of the cervical spine, lateroflexion (unilaterally), rotation (of the same side). Torso: dorsal flexion (both sides), lateroflexion (on the inclination), auxiliary rotation (the same side).
Back muscles - the deep back muscles - the system spinospinal
spinospinalprocessus spinosusprocessus spinosus (skipping one to two processus spinosus)rr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck: head and dorsal flexion of the cervical spine. Torso: dorsal flexion, straight spine.
Back muscles - the deep back muscles - the system transversospinal
semispinalisprocessus transversus more caudal vertebraeprocessus spinossus processus more cranial vertebraerr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck: head and dorsal flexion of the cervical spine, lateroflexion (unilaterally), rotation (of the other side). Torso: dorsal flexion (both sides), lateroflexion (on the inclination), auxiliary rotation (of the other side).
multifidiprocessus transversus more caudal vertebraeprocessus spinossus more cranial vertebrae (a larger number of pins)rr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck: head and dorsal flexion of the cervical spine, lateroflexion (unilaterally), rotation (of the other side). Torso: dorsal flexion (both sides), lateroflexion (on the inclination), auxiliary rotation (of the other side).
Back muscles - the deep back muscles - the short segmental muscles
interspinalesprocessus spinosusprocessus spinosusrr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck: auxiliary dorsal flexion of the head and cervical spine. Torso: auxiliary dorsal flexion
intertransversariiprocessus transversusprocessus transversusrr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck auxiliary lateroflexion (unilaterally). Torso: lateroflexion auxiliary (on the inclination)
levatores costarumprocessus transversusribsrr. dorsales nervi spinalesRibs: auxiliary elevator. Breathing: inspiration (auxiliary)
Back muscles - the deep back muscles - the deep neck muscles.
rectus capitis posterior majorprocessus spinosus axislinea nuchae inferior (center)rr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck: auxiliary dorsal flexion, lateroflexion and rotation of the head and the atlas
rectus capitis posterior minortuberculu posterius atlantislinea nuchae inferior (inner 1/3)rr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck: auxiliary dorsal flexion, lateroflexion and rotation of the head and the atlas
obliquus capitis superiorprocessus transversus atlantisover linea nuchae inferiorrr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck: auxiliary dorsal flexion, lateroflexion and rotation of the head and the atlas
obliquus capitis inferiorprocessus spinosus axisprocessus transversus atlantisrr. dorsales nervi spinalesHead and neck: auxiliary dorsal flexion, lateroflexion and rotation of the head and the atlas

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